Eat slowly to feel fuller: Study

Previous studies have found that slow eaters have lower Body Mass Index than those who gobble down their morsels. (Source: Thinkstock Images) Previous studies have found that slow eaters have lower Body Mass Index than those who gobble down their morsels. (Source: Thinkstock Images)

Go slow while eating your food as people who eat slowly feel fuller and think they have eaten more than those who eat quickly, shows research.

Previous studies have found that slow eaters have lower Body Mass Index (BMIs) than those who gobble down their morsels. But the reasons were not well understood.

To investigate whether how quickly we eat influences how hungry we feel afterwards, researchers from the University of Bristol fed volunteers Sainsbury’s tomato soup through a tube into their mouths, Daily Mail reported.

This set-up prevented the researchers from judging visually how much soup had been eaten. The participants then had 400 ml of soup put into their mouths at two rates. One was at a fast rate of 11.8 ml for two seconds, followed by a four second pause.

The other, the slow rate, was 5.4 ml of soup for one second followed by a 10-second pause. The volunteers were then asked how full they felt at the end of the meal and two hours after.

Those who took the soup more slowly said they felt fuller than the fast eaters both immediately after the test and two hours later.

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Is your food really ‘chemical-free’?

 bananas contain more chemicals than some sweets and is the dosage of chemical, rather than the chemical itself, which often causes problems, Daily Mail reported. (Source: Thinkstock Images) Bananas contain more chemicals than some sweets and is the dosage of chemical, rather than the chemical itself, which often causes problems, Daily Mail reported. (Source: Thinkstock Images)

Are you obsessed with detox food products that are supposedly free from chemicals? Well, there is no such thing as a “chemical free” food, shows a research.

No matter what the companies selling detox products say, in reality chemicals are in everything we eat — though all may not be unhealthy, a video created by a Toronto-based web portal ASAP Science shows.

It shows how bananas, for example, contain more chemicals than some sweets and explains that it is the dosage of chemical, rather than the chemical itself, which often causes problems, Daily Mail reported.

In the video, scientists explain that while many people will advise against eating food which contains chemicals that are hard to pronounce, yet a single blueberry contains chemicals like methylbutyrate and oleic acid benzaldehyde, among many more.

And in some cases, healthy foods contain more chemicals than processed sweets. In an example, a banana is shown containing more than 50 chemicals from riboflavin to histidine.

“Everything around us is made up of chemicals from the water you drink to the air you breathe, which is why it is frustrating when companies consistently tout their foods as chemical-free,” scientists said.

“Seriously, we can break down any food to look like a confusing long list of foreign ingredients,” scientists added.

The video continues that even non-harmful chemicals in food have the potential to become harmful at higher doses.

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Are you consuming enough fiber?

 

Recommended amount of dietary fiber per day is 38 grams for men and 25 grams for women. (Source: Thinkstock Images) Recommended amount of dietary fiber per day is 38 grams for men and 25 grams for women. (Source: Thinkstock Images)

Are you consuming enough fiber? A new study has revealed that the people, who get fiber from natural sources and manufactured sources, may benefit more than those who limit their intake to a single type.

Julie Miller Jones, a professor emeritus at St. Catherine University, has found that Americans fall short of the recommended amount of dietary fiber per day that is 38 grams for men and 25 grams for women. Men typically get around 18 grams and women get around 15 grams.

She cited a 2014 study that found a decline in the number of Americans, who said they are trying to eat more fiber, from 73 percent in 2010 to 53 percent in 2014.

Jones said that the real problem was that we don’t know we have a problem.

She added that when people don’t know they have a problem, they don’t know how to address it.

Jones further said that thirty-five percent of the people in America think that they are getting enough fiber, adding that it is a big job in terms of informing people about not getting enough fiber.

Jones said that consumers should strive for a mix of fiber sources, including fiber that has been added to food in the manufacturing process.

In addition, Jones noted that each type of fiber carries its own unique benefits.

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Grandma’s tip: Fat burner is right in your backyard

Garcinia Indica, Kokum tree, hydroxycitric acid, Health news Health effects of Garcinia Indica, popularly known as kokum, include anti-obesity and anti-cancer.

The demand for fat burning pills seems to be growing, for obvious reasons. What seems to have been missed is the fact that the most sought after popular fat burner — Garcinia Indica — is available right in our backyards.

Popularly known as kokum in India, Garcinia Indica has been used for centuries in Asian countries for culinary purposes as a condiment and flavoring agent in place of tamarind and lemon. It’s used in juices, pickles and to add sourness to curries.

Kokum tree is predominantly grown in the tropical humid rainforests of Western Ghats in South India. The fruits are green when raw and red to dark purple when fully ripe. Kokum is widely used as a beverage and also has been used as a medicine in traditional Indian Ayurveda.

A myriad of health effects have been attributed to Garcinia, which range from anti-obesity effects, anti-inflammatory, anticancer to digestive benefits. The anti-obesity effects of Garcinia Indica come specifically from its hydroxycitric acid (HCA), and have been elucidated in several studies over the past few decades. However, there are controversial results regarding its efficacy and safety as an anti-obesity dietary supplement. Despite this, the market is flooded with a plethora of over-the-counter slimming aid containing Garcinia & HCA.

A typical reduction of food appetite is reported and increased availability of mood enhancing neuro-transmitter Serotonin has been observed in animal and human studies with Garcinia. Besides this effect, it helps to enhance fat oxidation, reduces the tendency to store fat and leptin resistance. In other words, it suppresses fatty acid synthesis, formation of fat cells, food intake and induces weight loss. While several studies report strong evidence, others show negative anti-obesity effects.

Besides weight loss, it is also found to be useful in treating obesity-related complications such as inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance.

Kokum has been associated with several other nutritional and health benefits owing to its phytochemicals like anthocyanins and several other phenolic components. A recent animal study published in 2014 in the Journal of Biomedicine & Aging Pathology, reported that intake of Garcinia improved ulcers, owing to its underlying antioxidant activity.

Another useful component of kokum is Garcinol, which has been found to be neuro-protective, contributing to brain health and preventing Alzheimer’s.

Different parts of this plant, including its fruit, rind and seed, have different applications in food and medicine.  Rind is typically used for food and in pharma industry, while the kokum seeds are used to prepare butter, which is often used in cosmetics and medicines.

While it is clear that kokum and various parts of the plant have a role to play in weight loss and obesity management, it must be emphasised that there is no miracle or magic about it. A carefully planned diet and exercise are key to obesity management. Fat burners, be it herbs, vitamins or minerals, can only be supportive and work as adjuncts. It will be wise to take any of these in its natural form as food. A glass of kokum juice is a cooling digestive beverage and certainly needs no prescription.

Author is a clinical nutritionist and founder of  http://www.theweightmonitor.com and Whole Foods India

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Why physicians prescribe costly medicines

The kind of medicines (cheaper or costly) a doctor prescribes is influenced by the prescriptions made by senior physicians who supervised them during the training, says a study. (Source: Thinkstock Images) The kind of medicines (cheaper or costly) a doctor prescribes is influenced by the prescriptions made by senior physicians who supervised them during the training, says a study. (Source: Thinkstock Images)

Does your doctor often prescribe costly, big brand medicines? The decision may have to do with his training.

The kind of medicines (cheaper or costly) a doctor prescribes is influenced by the prescriptions made by senior physicians who supervised them during the training, says a study.

The results represent an opportunity for improvement in graduate medical education at a time when in India the government is emphasising on physicians prescribing generic medicines instead of brand names to make healthcare more affordable for the masses.

The study, published online in the Journal of General Internal Medicine, found that physicians-in-training are twice as likely to order a costly brand-name statin (used to lower blood cholesterol levels) when supervised by senior physicians who prefer those medications in their own practice.

These results document a link between low-value prescribing and graduate medical training, which physicians undergo after completing medical school but before they can practice independently.

The study found that the probability of a resident prescribing a costly brand-name statin increased from 22.6 percent when residents were supervised by attending physicians who mostly prescribed cheaper generic statins, to 41.6 percent when they were supervised by an attending who mostly prescribed expensive brand name statins.

The linkage was strongest for the most junior resident physicians in training.

“These results provide early empirical evidence that low-value practices among physicians are transferred from teachers to trainees, highlighting the importance of re-design of graduate medical education,” said Kira Ryskina, a general internal medicine fellow at University of Pennsylvania.

“We observed considerable variation in the prescribing practices of both attending physicians and residents, suggesting room to improve cost-effectiveness,” Ryskina said.

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The olive oil debate: getting it right

olive oil, olive oil debate, olive oil benifits, olive oil consumption, India olive oil, health latest news Several studies confirm that consumption of olive oil, rich in mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), has contributed to low rates of cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and increased life expectancy in the Mediterranean belt.

Olive oil has found a place in urban Indian kitchens and its availability in supermarkets and neighbourhood kirana stores clearly indicates its growing demand. There, however, still seems to be some myths around the types of the oil and its usage.

Almost sacred in the Mediterranean region — in countries like France, Spain, Greece, Italy and Portugal — olive oil is not native to India but needs no introduction here. Used as a baby massage oil until a few years ago, it has slowly acquired the mighty reputation of being heart-healthy.

Several studies confirm that consumption of olive oil, rich in mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), has contributed to low rates of cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and increased life expectancy in the Mediterranean belt. One of the largest — the Seven Country Study (1958-1964) — showed that Greece, with the highest consumption of olive oil, reported the lowest number of deaths from heart disease.  It is in fact thanks to olive oil that the distinction between good and bad fats began to be recognised.

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The French and Spanish paradoxes symbolised the importance of the quality of fats rather than simply the quantity.

Low incidence of heart disease in the populations of the two countries was attributed to the high consumption of mono-unsaturated rich olive oil included in a healthy diet comprising whole grain, fruits and vegetables. It reflected the benefits of good fat.

Olive oil differs from other oils in that it is derived from a fruit rather than a seed and has among the highest concentrations of polyphenols, MUFA and vitamin E. These special features are responsible for several of its health benefits. The polyphenols, vitamin E and A lead to high antioxidant levels, which lower bad cholesterol (LDL), blood pressure, risk of heart disease and cancer. The higher the polyphenol content, the greater are the health benefits.

The high MUFA content is responsible for increase in good cholesterol levels, improvement of blood sugar levels in diabetics and reduction of abdominal obesity.

Olive oil comes in a number of varieties: Extra-virgin, virgin, pure / refined/ light, and pomace. Extra-virgin or the first pressed olive oil is the highest quality. This oil has the highest polyphenol content. Virgin olive oil is a slightly lower category based on acidity levels less than 2 per cent. Olive oil (pure / refined), with an acidity of less than 3 per cent, is obtained by refining virgin olive oils (not olive-pomace oils) that have a high acidity level. Pomace or olive seed oil is extracted from the pulp or paste that is left over by using high heat and solvents.

The myths

Should be only oils used

Remember, there is no perfect oil. A balance of …continued »

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Personalised treatment for cancer

Dr-P-K-julka-L Dr P K julka, Former Dean & Professor of Oncology AIIMS, New Delhi.

Dr P K julka, Former Dean & Professor of Oncology AIIMS, New Delhi, delibrates on how personalised treatment can be an option for cancer patients.

Modern molecular profiling, where patients are characterised into subgroups, is now helping personalise treatment options for cancer patients, opening up new avenues of dealing with the disease. It also provides patients the opportunity to receive minimally-toxic therapy with clinical benefits.

A 61-year-old woman patient was brought with a lump in her left breast and skin ulceration that she had had for six months. A trucut biopsy of the lump showed invasive ductal carcinoma, the most common type of breast cancer.

The patient underwent left-modified radical mastectomy (MRM), removal of the breast including the skin, breast tissue, areola, and nipple, along with axillary node dissection — removal of the lymph nodes from under the arm.

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Histopathology revealed a 5*4 cm mass in the breast; three of the eleven lymph nodes were involved, with tumor emboli in the lymphatics adjacent to the involved nodes. The receptor status ER, PR and Her2neu were negative (Triple negative), a type of cancer that does not respond to hormone therapy.

The patient received adjuvant chemotherapy (additional treatment given after surgery to lower the risk of the cancer returning) consisting of four cycles of Doxorubicin and Cyclophosphamide followed by four cycles of Docetaxel every third week.

She then underwent adjuvant radiation to the chest wall and regional nodes for a total dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions.

She had two years of disease-free survival but then began to develop lung metastasis (cancerous tumors that start somewhere else in the body and spread to the lungs).  She responded partially to several lines of palliative chemotherapy. She subsequently developed bone metastasis and skin deposits.

A biopsy from skin nodules revealed metastatic carcinoma, which was again found to be triple negative and androgen receptor positive.

Her disease continued to progress in spite of she receiving two cycles of Eribulin and palliative radiation to the skin nodules.

She is now on tablet Bicalutamide (150 mg), which she takes orally every day. Its been two months since she was put on the Bicalutamide therapy and her cancer has stabilised.

The case is of interest as triple negative breast cancer is an aggressive form of the disease, known to have the worst prognosis. It also tends to relapse earlier than other breast tumour subtypes.

Modern molecular profiling helped the patient to receive oral endocrine therapy, a new treatment option.

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Workout can help middle-aged men cut risk of osteoporosis

University of Missouri researchers have found that certain types of weight-lifting and jumping exercises, when completed for at least six months, improve bone density in active, healthy, middle-aged men with low bone mass. University of Missouri researchers have found that certain types of weight-lifting and jumping exercises, when completed for at least six months, improve bone density in active, healthy, middle-aged men with low bone mass.

Middle aged men should exercise to reverse age related bone loss, cut risk of decrease osteoporosis, finds a new study.

University of Missouri researchers have found that certain types of weight-lifting and jumping exercises, when completed for at least six months, improve bone density in active, healthy, middle-aged men with low bone mass. These exercises may help prevent osteoporosis by facilitating bone growth.

Associate professor Pam Hinton said that their study was the first to show that exercise-based interventions work to increase bone density in middle-aged men with low bone mass who are otherwise healthy.

Hinton said the study results did not indicate that all kinds of weight lifting will help improve bone mass; rather, targeted exercises made the training programs effective.

Throughout their training programs, participants rated pain and fatigue after completing their exercises. The participants reported minimal pain and fatigue, and these ratings decreased over the year. Hinton said individuals who want to use similar training programs to improve bone density should consider their current activity levels and exercise preferences as well as time and equipment constraints.

The study is published in Bone.

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Changes in body temperature can trigger sudden cardiac death

heart attack, heart attack risk, patient, antacids, proton pump, heart attack risk, heart, health, drugs Sudden death caused by an irregular heartbeat (cardiac arrhythmia) can be triggered by changes in body temperature, scientists have warned.

Sudden death caused by an irregular heartbeat (cardiac arrhythmia) can be triggered by changes in body temperature, scientists have warned.

While studying the proteins that underlie electrical signalling in the heart and subjecting those proteins to conditions that are similar to the stress of exercise, professor Peter Ruben from the Simon Fraser University at Burnaby in British Columbia found that in some cases, temperature can cause changes that trigger arrhythmia.

Ruben’s team found a protein that is far more sensitive to temperature than normal.

When normal body temperature goes up, for example during exercise, or goes down during sleep, the affected protein no longer functions normally.

The disrupted protein function causes the electrical signal in our heart to become erratic, triggering an arrhythmia and, potentially, sudden cardiac death.

“With this new knowledge, people can examine their family histories and, if sudden cardiac death is part of that family history, or if they suffer from unexplained fainting, they can seek medical advice,” Ruben advised in a paper published in the Journal of Physiology.

When muscle cells in our hearts contract rhythmically and in a well-coordinated way, the heart efficiently pumps blood throughout our bodies.

When the rhythmic pumping action is disrupted by an arrhythmia, our hearts can no longer distribute blood.

In extreme cases, this leads to sudden cardiac death.

The electrical signal behind muscle contraction is produced by tiny protein molecules in the membrane of our heart cells.

“Temperature fluctuations modify the way all proteins behave, but some DNA mutations can make proteins especially sensitive to changes in temperature,” the team explained.

Through a combination of electrocardiograms, genetic screening, and lifestyle management, some tragic deaths caused by cardiac arrhythmia may be prevented.

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Nutritious diet, chocolates can boost sperm counts

chocolate-main A healthy nutritious diet including tomatoes, sweet potatoes and fish can boost sperm production and support healthy sperm count in men (Source: Thinkstock Images)

A healthy nutritious diet including tomatoes, sweet potatoes and fish can boost sperm production and support healthy sperm count in men, fertility experts said here on Thursday.

They said the need to pay importance to the food habits was because several life factors such as stress, obesity, lack of exercise caused a negative impact on men’s sperm, without even making them realise and further causing trouble in their sexual life.

“Men should know that the health of their sperm is an extremely important factor in getting a woman pregnant. And there are three main elements which determine the health of sperm cells: sperm quantity, sperm quality and sperm motility,” Kshitiz Murdia, a leading fertility expert said.

He said though age plays a role when it comes to male infertility, as the ability of sperm to move and the proportion of normal sperm tend to decrease with age, a lot depends on the quality of his sperms.

“Therefore, eating well and nutritious diet rich in antioxidants which include tomatoes, sweet potatoes, melon, carrots, pumpkin seeds, fish, walnuts, blueberries and pomegranates is the key to having healthy sperm cells,” he said.

“Taking regular dose of multi-vitamins is helpful too,” said Murdia, who is associated with city based Indira Fertility Clinic and Test Tube Centre.

Stating that dark chocolates helps in the volume of ejaculate and improve sperm count and motility, he said, “The darker the chocolate, the better quality of sperms gets.”

“Water is said to be the simplest way to increase the sperm count and the quality. Semen is water based and increasing liquid consumption definitely helps in improving sperm production,” he added.

Sandeep Seth, another fertility experts at Kolkata-based Downtown hospital, said: “When it comes to fertility, weight plays a crucial role. If a man happens to be overweight or obese, then exercising is very crucial as diet modification alone won’t work.”

However, he said exercising should be carefully done as it could cause the temperature of the scrotum and testicles to rise which can affect the quality of the sperm.

“Too much of cycling, saunas, hot bathtub are harmful and instead one should opt for shower,” he said in the statement.

“Sperm can be especially vulnerable to environmental factors, such as exposure to excessive heat or toxic chemicals. For instance, most of us have a habit of using laptops keeping them on our laps and working, or watch movies and TV series for long hours.”

“The heat from the laptop gets directly transferred to the scrotum. This too reduces your chances of having healthy sperms,” he said.

Highlighting negative effects of smoking on sperms, he said, “Smoking in particular damages sperm as the sperm DNA gets affected with smoke and creates abnormalities in the sperm cell. When trying to have a baby, make sure you abstain yourself from smoking (active and passive) from at least 2 months …continued »

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